Polish Paramilitaries: Training to War in Times of Peace

State-funded paramilitary units and militias are spreading in Poland, marking the resurgence of a patriotic interest in national civil defense against a Russian invasion. Will it lead to the militarization of Polish society?

Lorenzo Berardi9. 12. 2016

The Greeks showed us a great deal of solidarity

Maher left Syria with his family, crossed the sea on a boat and, after landing successfully in Greece, made it to Germany. While learning the language and preparing for a job, he dreams about returning home to a peaceful Syria.

Maher Al Hamwy5. 12. 2016

Happiness? When the war is over…

Kamal is a mathematician and enjoys playing the chess. He left Syria because of the horrible experiences he endured there in prison and hopes he gets the chance to finish his studies in Germany so that he can support his siblings still in the southern Syria.

Kamal11. 11. 2016


In all V4 countries we can see quite significant difference betweeen monthly earning of women and men. The regional average for average earnings is 18.7%. With the exception of Poland the gap in average earnings is higher than in the case of median earnings. The segregation of labour market plays its role here – the average earnings are increased by men employed in well-paid sectors (horizontal segregation) or on top positions (vertical segregation). The biggest gap in average salaries is in Slovakia and the Czech Republic – in both cases over 20% followed by Poland with 17% and the smallest gap is in Hungary – only 13%. For median data for only 3 countries are avaiable and the situation is quite different. The biggest gap is in Poland (22%) followed by Slovakia (17%) and the smallest in the Czech Republic.

Women earn less than men in the V4: A punishment for home and childcare?

The gendered discrepancies in earnings is significant in the V4. The causes of the pay gap are complex, reflecting a variety of problems both in national economies and societies.